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Traffic noise has actually ended up being more of a problem in some neighborhoods because there are more automobiles on the road, and heavier automobiles entirely, in addition to cars driving at greater speeds.

The noise stems in part from car engines, wind and other elements, but when automobiles drive at speeds of 60 miles per hour or higher, roadway sound results primarily from contact between the tires and the road, according to Dr. Donavan.
Associated Reading.

For residents who live near busy highways, the sound is disturbing and may be hazardous to their health. It also lowers home values and requires costly noise barriers. Engineers state newer pavements could lower noise by three to 5 decibels, an audible difference.

Roads normally are paved with concrete, a rigid surface made of stone and sand and bound with cement. Or they are paved with asphalt concrete, a more versatile surface area where the binder of the stone and sand is asphalt, the sticky compound left after oil has actually been improved.

The noise level of a roadway depends on 3 factors: the appearance of the roadway surface area; its stiffness; and its porosity– how huge the air holes are. Too smooth a surface isn’t really excellent since it can cause squeaking, however too bumpy a surface causes rumbling.

One trick for quieting pavement is to offer it a “unfavorable” structure, or small divots and gouges, according to Robert Rasmussen, a pavement engineer at Transtec Group Inc., a pavement-engineering and design company.

However if those divots get blocked, the sound reduction is removed. In Europe, where the European Union has mandated that metropolitan areas utilize quieter pavement, a giant vacuum-cleaner-like device is used to suck the grit from the roadway divots, according to researchers.

October 20th, 2017

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When it comes to excavation work, there are a few other things to consider prior to opening an excavation in order to make sure that everything flows smoothly and safety.

One thing to consider when planning excavation is the location of utility installations like sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water lines, or any other underground installations that one might encounter during excavation work. Information regarding such can be obtained through utility companies. However, if the company cannot provide information within the required amount of time, or cannot define the exact location of the installations, excavation may still push through with caution. Also, detection equipment or other means of determining utility installations can be used, provided that the method is safe and acceptable.

For excavations that are 4 feet or more in depth, employees should be provided with safe means of exit. Employees should also not travel laterally more than 25 feet to reach an exit. Also, in places where there is accumulated water, employees should not be allowed to work unless there are adequate precautions for employees. Necessary precautions include support and shield systems to protect from cave-ins, water removal to control the level of accumulating water,and use of a safety harness and lifeline.

In the case of heavy equipment operation that is operated adjacent to an excavation, an operator must have a clear and direct view of the edge of the excavation or a warning system should be put into play. A few examples of warning systems would include stop logs, barricades, and hand or mechanical signals.

When adjacent structures are evident in excavation sites, stability of those structures or buildings should be well established. If there is possibility of endangering buildings or walls by excavation operations, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning are required to be provided to ensure the permanency of such buildings.

Also, daily inspections should be done by knowledgeable individuals to make sure that protective systems are being utilized properly. Evidence of a situation that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions should be quickly identified and managed.

October 16th, 2017

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In every trenching or excavation site, there are risks involved and safety should always be provided to every team member working on that site. There should be a competent person present who has the authority to make changes and halt work when there is evidence that safety is being compromised.

Being the competent person, they are in charge of conducting daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems. they are also be looking for signs of soil distress, such as fissures or cracks on the excavation face, slumping of material from the excavation face, bulging or heaving of material at the bottom of the excavation wall, sinking of the excavation’s edge, raveling and small amounts of material trickling into the excavation. Also, they must consider nearby vibrating machinery or heavy, moving loads, as well as hot, dry weather.

During trenching and excavation, atmosphere should be checked if it is near sewers, landfills or hazardous substances storage areas. If such condition are present, further evaluation must be done to rule out possibility of endangering stability of adjacent buildings, walls, and other structures. In addition, steadiness of sidewalks and pavements should be evaluated and ascertain that it will not collapse on workers. Proper support, underpinnings, bracing ,and shoring should be utilized to guarantee stability and employee protection.

If there is evidence of water pooling on excavation site, workers should not be allowed to work. A shield system or shoring should be put into play and water removal system facilitated right away. If de-watering is constant and there is a risk of cave-in, everyone in the trench should leave immediately.

In the event of marked underground utilities, there should be warning systems and barricades. Excavations shall be no greater than two feet below the bottom of a shield, which is often designed to stack and can be used in conjunction with sloping and benching. No one shall be permitted inside shields when the shields are being raised, lowered or moved.

October 14th, 2017

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As with other materials, asphalt is not impervious to adverse weather and other conditions. Properly identifying the problem is essential in order to come up with the best solution when it comes to pavement flaws. Here are a couple of common pavement problems that your pavement contractor should easily spot.

  1. Alligator Cracking: This type of problem is associated with structural failure that can be due to weakness in the surface, base or sub grade; a surface or base that is too thin; poor drainage or the combination of all three. It initially starts in the wheel path as longitudinal cracking and ends up as alligator cracking after severe distress.
  2. Block Cracking: These look like rough and large interconnected rectangles that are caused by shrinkage of the asphalt pavement due to an inability of asphalt binder to expand and contract with temperature cycles. It can be that the mix was mixed and placed too dry, fine aggregate mix with low penetration asphalt & absorptive aggregates, poor choice of asphalt binder in the mix design, or aging dried out asphalt.
  3. Linear Cracking: As the name implies, these are longitudinal cracks that are parallel to the pavement centerline or lay down direction. It can be caused by pavement fatigue, reflective cracking, or poor joint construction.
  4. Transverse Cracking: These are single cracks perpendicular to the pavement’s centerline or lay-down direction. Transverse cracks can be caused by reflective cracks from an underlying layer, daily temperature cycles, and poor construction due to improper operation of the paver.
  5. Edge Cracks: These types of cracks travel in the inside edge of a pavement surface within a foot or two. The main reason behind this would be poor drainage conditions that can weaken the base materials. Heavy vegetation along the pavement edge and heavy traffic can also be the initiator of edge cracking.
  6. Joint Reflection Cracking: These cracks happen on asphalt pavements over concrete and affect the underlying rigid pavement joints.
  7. Slippage Cracks: These are crescent-shaped cracks in the surface layer of the asphalt where new material has slipped over the underlying course. Most probably, it is caused by lack of bonding between layers that can be sue to dirt, oil, or other contaminants preventing adhesion between the layers.

October 10th, 2017

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When asphalt pavement comes in contact with harsh weather, especially during winter, it can weaken you parking lot or driveway and ultimately cause cracks or other problems. Here are a couple more asphalt flaws you should be well aware of.

  1. Pot Holes: There are bowl-shaped depressions evident on the pavement surface. Although some are small, they can extend until the base. Most have sharp edges and vertical sides at the top of the hole. These can be caused by moisture infiltration and is the end result of alligator cracking that has been left untreated.
  2. Bird Baths or Depressions: These depressions can easily be spotted after a rain because they tend to be filled with water. Depressions lightly lower elevations than surrounding pavement.
  3. Rutting: Rutting can be caused by various factors which include insufficient pavement thickness, lack of compaction of the asphalt, stone base or soil, weak asphalt mixes or moisture infiltration and causes channelized depressions in the wheel-tracks.
  4. Shoving: Also called wash-boarding because of the characteristic formation of ripples across a pavement. This usually occurs in places where there are severe horizontal stresses such as intersections that is caused by excess asphalt, excess fine aggregate, rounded aggregate, or a weak granular base.
  5. Upheaval: Owing to expansive soils that tend to swell because of moisture or ice under the pavement, it can result to distension of the sub-grade and ultimately an upward movement in a pavement.
  6. Raveling: This is basically the on-going separation of aggregate particles in a pavement from the surface downward or from the edges inward. Fine aggregates wears away and leaves small pock marks on the pavement surface. When erosion continues, particles become larger and larger and are broken free. After which, pavement will just look rough and jagged. One reason why this happens is when asphalt is places too late in the season.

Be sure you are in the hands of experienced company to be sure that these problems or failures will not be experienced.

October 2nd, 2017

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Many academic professionals, school principals, university heads, and other leaders of a learning center believe that polishing their values, their motto, and their curriculum are the aspects that are truly essential.

School heads also believe in taking an immense amount of time improving their facilities, such as the school library, cafeteria, and most especially the classrooms. They are constantly investing in overhead projectors, whiteboards, desks, and other tools necessary for learning.

Don’t get me wrong, these are indeed crucial to modern education, and I wholeheartedly agree with the motto ‘school is cool’. Many parents do seek out these very aspects when choosing a prospective school for their child, as they would want an education that comes close to their own ideals.

However, I do believe that before parents even come to scout the facilities and values in order to come to their final judgment, they would have passed through the exterior of the campus.

The very first sight parents will spot is the school campus, in all its glory and excellence. Most likely it will boast a few banners or posters to showcase its distinction and merit, but what many campuses fail to provide is an outstanding parking lot.

It may sound a bit funny and peculiar right now, but take a moment and think of it. As parents park their cars into the parking area, the condition and preservation of this concrete will already tell them something about the facilities. The parking lot is considered a facility of the school, and if this large area is disregarded, it may give some parents doubts as to what other aspects could be as easily overlooked, and also disregarded.

The most fundamental concept for an educational campus to remember is first impressions, especially when trying to attract and recruit new students. You may have an outstanding motto, a brilliant core value system, and the most quality approach to enhance learning, but all of these aspects you’ve tirelessly honed will be lost if the basic maintenance of your outdoor campus is visually deteriorating.

It may seem like a daunting task to create a more pleasing parking lot, and frankly many people consider it to be completely unnecessary, however, find a company that specializes in paving and sealing commercial areas such as shopping centers or schools and have your campus parking lot fixed. The overall vibes your campus will give now truly emanates from every nook and crevice of your school, which will surely reach the impressions of incoming parents looking to inquire.

September 15th, 2017

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When it comes to excavating, there are already guidelines for electrical safety for a range of industries and technical competencies. Prior to any excavating work of trenching, there should be proper location of various underground utility services and this includes underground cables.

When damaged, people can get injured by electric arcs that can even cause explosion, electric shock, flames, and even death. Damage is caused when a cable is crushed by a powerful machine, a heavy object, or cut through by a sharp object such as the point of a tool. If cables are damaged, it should be reported or repaired right away. If the issues are not addressed, serious problems can come up.

Whenever you are digging or disturbing the earth, caution should be taken as not to damage any underground services. Electrical cables may appear like pipes, which can be hazardous because it is nearly impossible to tell if they are live.

To avoid accidents, there should be thorough planning to properly manage and control risks, including coordinating with other departments. the Majority of cables belong to a DNO or otherwise known as Distribution Network Operator. However, in some instances, it might belong to an authority like the Ministry of Defense or Network Rail. If you are planning to do excavation or trenching, it is best to check for any equipment possessed by any of those establishments. If you have suspicions that underground cables may be evident within the area, confirm their location or ask a representative from that department and accurately locate them.

In the event of excavating within your own territory, involving your own cables, seek assistance from someone who is an expert in cable detection. They will have the essential tools needed i

If you get you lines disconnected to ensure safety during work, electric companies should give at least five days’ notice to customers whose supply is going to be disconnected.

Through careful planning and risk assessment, the fundamentals are given due attention before actual work starts and possible circumstances that might occur are already taken into account.

September 8th, 2017

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Engineers and scientists in several states are attempting to pave the way to a quieter future, try out rubber, asphalt and gravel looking for a way to make roadways less loud.

Virginia is testing a number of stretches of speculative pavement as part of a $7.5 million state job. Arizona and California have actually been trying different highway surfaces meant to decrease sound. Washington state, which has sampled numerous surface areas with limited success, is pressing ahead with others.

Far, efforts in the field of so-called peaceful pavement are revealing combined outcomes. Some surfaces can be more expensive to put down than conventional streets and have the tendency to require more regular repair works, according to pavement engineers. Other experimental surfaces have broken down with time and ultimately end up being even noisier than the initial pavement they changed.

As part of the Quiet Pavement Pilot Program, an asphalt and rubber overlay was used to part of the 101 highway near Phoenix, decreasing noise in one comparison from 79 decibels to 70 decibels. Listen to recordings made along the highway in areas that did and did not have the overlay.

The inspiration making roadways quieter is great. The noise of freeway traffic about 50 to 100 feet away– a common distance between highways and homes– usually runs 65 to 75 decibels, about the volume of a regular discussion heard 3 feet away, stated Paul Donavan, a senior scientist at Illingworth & Rodkin Inc., a company focusing on acoustics and air quality.

Trucks have to do with 10 decibels louder than vehicles, said Dr. Donavan, who has a doctorate in acoustics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A boost of 10 decibels represents a doubling in loudness to the human ear.

September 3rd, 2017

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Here are the layers of asphalt pavement. The bottom layer is polypropylene which is mostly the existing soil. Then, it needs a wide granular base course which is usually stabilized with asphalt, cement or fly ash.

The binder course is also called the base lift, which is the bottom layer of the asphalt pavement. Meanwhile, the wearing coat is the top layer and is responsible for the smooth ride and skid resistance.  The wearing coat may be made of multiple layers, depending upon the structural needs.

August 18th, 2017

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Various sites require various types of preparation because no matter what type of environment you have, there is always a way to go about site preparation. This usually involves clearing away trees or even swamps efficiently and with minimal disruption to the surrounding environment. It also includes any rough grading necessary or staking in preparation for installation of the footings and foundation.

Building site preparation includes land clearing and this process strips the topsoil for later use. Other items that might get in the way, like trees and stumps, will also be detached to make sure to provide enough space for construction. The following are a couple of land clearing options.

Excavation is essential specifically when it comes to containment and control of water which includes retention ponds, ditches, and refiguring slopes. During excavation, levelling is done as well as digging for a basement or crawl space.

Hauling involves providing essential and fresh materials, if necessary, for the building site like stones for parking areas and driveways. But remember that compaction is also important in cases where fill materials are being moved or hauled in. These new materials should be properly compressed to ensure stability. Fill is usually compacted in 6” lifts to avoid any settling after the site is on grade.
Depending on what type of building you are planning to build, you have to plan what would be the site material to be used for the base. A mixture of clay, sand, and gravel is oftentimes a good choice for a steady base.

Planning to put a restroom to the building? Better check if you are connected to the city sewer system. If not, a safe septic system should be put into play and connected to the city sewer. For gutters and water channeling systems, trenching should also be done.

Finally, after construction is done, you would not want your property to look like a work site anymore. Topsoil that was previously removed will be placed back to bring back the soil’s natural glory.

August 12th, 2017

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